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Skeletal System

#’s Axial, Apendendicular

 

Functions (6)

 

Histology

            Haversion system + ______

            5 things to identify

            Cells (4)

 

(2) types of bones

 

Long bone – identify (9 items)

 

Composition : 1)______________

                        2) Matrix=____%

                                         ______%

 

Bone Ossification (2 types  – which bones are made from thee?)

Where do all middle bones come from?

 

Intra_______ Ossification (8 steps)

 

Endochondral O_______ (13 steps)

 

Long bones increase length by…………………..

Diameter by……………..

 

Bones classified by?   (4 – give examples)

2 other types.

 

What are the Growth Factors? (4) Give exact examples of each!

 

Where are the Paranasal Sinuses? What are the functions? Tissue?

 

What are Fontanels? Where are all 5 located and names?

 

Vertebral Column (#? Bones)

Draw and name curves.

Functions

 

What difference can you find between male/female bones?

 

Types of Fractures ( 8 )

 

Disorders (7)

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CALCITONIN-     

                                                                              

CANCELLOUS BONE-

 

COLLES FRACTURE-

 

COMMINUTED FRACTURE-

 

COMPOUND FRACTURE-

 

FONTANELS-

 

GREENSTICK FRACTURE-

 

INORGANIC SALTS-

 

KYPHOSIS-

 

LORDOSIS-

 

OBLIQUE FRACTURE-

 

ORGANIC FRAMEWORK-

 

OSTEOBLASTS/OSTEOCLASTS/OSTEOCYTES-

 

OSTEOMALACIA-

 

OSTEOMYELITIS-

 

OSTEONS –

 

OSTEOPOROSIS-

 

OSTEOPROGENITOR CELLS-

 

PARATHYROID-

 

POTT’S FRACTURE –

 

SCOLIOSIS-

 

SESAMOID-

 

SPIRAL FRACTURE –

 

THYROXINE-

 

TRANSVERSE FRACTURE –

 

WORMIAN-

 

Skeletal Questions

 

Can you name 5 fractures and describe?

 

What is the functions (6) of the curvature of the vertebral column?

 

What are the 4 curves of the vertebral and which is present at birth?

 

What are the Functions of the paranasal sinuses?

 

Describe the paranasal sinuses, and list 1 and it’s specific location.

 

What is a Fontanel?

 

What is the name of one Fontanel and what does it articulate with?

 

How do long bones increase in diameter by?

 

How do long bones increase in length by?

 

Name 4 minerals responsible for Growth and what the do.

 

What does thyroxine do?

 

What comes before “osteoblasts form bone matrix”, in endochondral ossification?

 

What are the types of ossification?

 

What comes after “trapped osteoblasts called osteocytes” in (other) ossification?

 

What bones are formed by endochondral ossification?

 

Both ossifications start from middle layer of___________ called __________.

 

Cartilage turns into bone.   T      F

 

What is the composition of bone? What constitutes the 33%, What constitutes the 67%

 

Name and draw the typical long bone, and identify at least 5 main points.

 

How is bone classified and name one bone for each.

 

Describe the two different Types of bone.

 

What are the functions of the Skeletal System? (6)

 

How many bones are in the appendicular?

 

What is the Histology of the Haversian system?

 

What is the difference between osteoprogenitor, osteoblast, osteocyte and osteoclast cells?

 

Most bones of the body

Bone formation preceded by cartilage model

Veiw Visual Step Chart to help memorize

Steps:

 

1.  Mesenchyme cells form cartilage model

2.  Perichondrium surrounds cartilage model

3.  Osteoblasts differentiate on inner surface of perichondrium

4.  Collar of compact bone surrounds cartilage model on diaphysis of model

5.  Chondrocytes and lacunae in diaphysis enlarge (reducing amount of matrix)

6. Calcium deposits in remaining matrix (calcified cartilage)

7. Nutrients can’t diffuse

8. Chondrocytes die leaving hollow spaces

9. Blood vessels and osteoprogenitor cells enter matrix from periosteum

10. Osteoprogenitor cells differentiate into osteoblasts

11. Osteoblasts form bone matrix

12. This forms Primary Ossification Center in diaphysis

13. Secondary ossification center forms in epiphyses at time of birth or later

This includes the flat bones of the cranium, zygomatic, maxillae, mandible and part of the clavicles.

 Veiw Visual Step Chart to help memorize

Steps:

1.  Mesenchyme cells differentiate into osteoblasts and start to secrete matrix

2.  Osteoblasts form spicules of matrix

3.  Spicules trap osteoblasts in lacuna

4.  Activity slows

5.  Trapped osteoblasts called osteocytes

6.  Bone growth proceeds outward from center (ossification center)

7.  spicules thicken into trabeculae (spongy bone)

8.  Trabeculae connect (compact bone)

Currently uploaded is the following worksheets (11) for Exam II

For Skeletal System (4):   Skeletal Questions, Skeletal Volcabulary, Skeletal System. Ossification

For Arthrology (4): Arthrology Questions, Arthrology Volcabulary, Joints, Synovial Joints

For Muscular System (2) – Muscular Questions, Muscular Volcabulary

Functions Exam II

They should all be listed at the Left.

For Endochondral Ossification written steps go here

For Intramembranous Ossification written steps go here

Skeletal System

Support & Protection

Movement

Mineral Reservoir

Hemopoiesis

Energy Storage

 

 

Paranasal Sinuses

Lighten Skull

Warm Air

Resonate Sound

Protection

Produce Mucus

 

 

Fontanels

Allows for flexibility and skull growth

 

 

Vertebral Column Curves

Increase strength, resilience, flexibility of spine, maintain balance, absorb shock, protect from fracture

 

 

Synovial Fluid

Lubricates

Nourishes

Cushions/shock absorber

 

 

Muscles

Body Movement

Maintenance of posture

Heat production

Storage and movement of materials

Support

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Only current worksheets will be linked. The others will become available as we review their areas.

Exam worksheets are always available in SI, then the week of the exam, they will be available here.

Exam I Worksheets:

cell

functions-exam1

vocabulary-exam-1

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