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This video is by the Medical College of Georgia – Gross Anatomy and is available for free from itunes.
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This Practical will include…

Upper Body Muscles (1-40)


• cats

• bodybuilder photos

• cadaver

• purple arm

The Brain and Spinal Cord

• sheep and human brains and spinal cord model

Cranial Nerves

• olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, auditory, vagus (in the cat) and accessory

Brachial Plexus

• musculocutaneous, radial, ulnar and median nerves.


• cow eye and human models


• human models


Be sure to view the Sample Practical Video (No. 2), available for home loan in the library or for viewing in the IMC.

Also don’t forget to bring a probe and gloves to the practical!

Amazingly we had a neurosurgeon, Dr. Mukesh Misra from AV Neuroscience group in Lancaster, remove the brain from the newly aquired cadavar. For those of you who missed it – I kept notes!

This is just a quick scan of my visual step-by-step notes. I’ll type it up later today after classes!

PS – it was very cool.


Typed: Page 1      Page 2      Page 3     Page 4

To help get those synapses working, I am doing a Daily 5 questions posted here. Send me your answer everyday. I’ll email you back the correct answers. We will do 5 questions everyday till your next test – the week of October 29th. This will make you write/type your answers down.  There will be one question on the notes for the next lecture. Just hit ‘comment’ at the end of this post.



  Play the Daily 5 and win an A!




1.) What are the hair cells called located in the saccule?


2.) What are crista ampularis?


3.) What is the spiral organ?


4.) Where do impulses from vestibular nuclei go?


5.) What scala begins at the oval window, and what is on the other side of the oval window?





To find out more about the Daily 5 and answers to past sets, click on Daily 5
















Visual Pathway


1.)  Light enters pupil→aqueous humor→lens→vitreous humor, detected by Photoreceptors in Retina.


2.)    Electrical stimulation passed to Bipolar Cells→Glaglion cells of retina


3.)   Axons of Ganglion cells leave retina, forming Optic Nerve


4.)  Optic nerves converge at Optic Chiasm. Ganglion axons decussate/cross over to opposite side of brain


5.)  Ganglion axons enter Optic Tract, some to the Superior Colliculi, some to Thalamus


6.)  Neurons from Thalamus project to Visual Cortex of Occipital lobe


Eye Structure



Prevent sweat dripping


Prevent –


Protect from sun/foreign particles


Prevents –

Tarsal Glands

Containing sebaceous glands to prevent tear overflow and lids sticking together

Extrinsic Muscles

Lacrimal apparatus


Suspensory lens

Ciliary body



Eye Structure



Stratified –


Dense Connective Tissue, outer layer of –



Vascular – network of capillaries

Anterior cavity

Posterior cavity

Filled with Vitreous humor




Here is the Lasik Eye Surgery video I promised.

(These steps are from Dr. Alan Bergs site, as I had him for my surgeon.)

Step 1
First the surgeon applies a few numbing eye-drops to the eye prior to the procedure, and the surgeon marks the cornea with water-soluble ink to guide replacement of the flap. (My eye is upside down in this video)
Step 2
A thin corneal flap is created using an instrument called a microkeratome. This part of the procedure is called keratectomy and makes a “flap” in the corneal tissue on the central part of the eye, which is gently folded back, exposing the underlying layers of the cornea.  This flap can also be created with the use of the Intralase laser. (this is done with one machine, then you walk over to another machine- yes you can still see)

Step 3
The surgeon then uses the excimer laser to apply a cool beam of light to gently even out the curvature of the cornea this is done with CustomVue Wavefront guided technology. The protective corneal flap is then gently placed back in its original position and begins healing immediately.  (Hard to see it happening, look for those colored lights hitting the cornea.)

Step 4
After the flap is gently laid back, a few moisturizing drops are applied to soothe your eye and speed recovery. (As you can see, it takes no time.)

…below is a previous blog written in April 2008, after the surgery.

I went and had my eye vision corrected with Lasik surgery. That was Wednesday and today, three days later, I am still thrilled I did it. I have worn glasses for distance for 30 years. We are talking anything over four feet away (20/300). Now I can see 20/15 in both eyes. My near vision is fine. I can see clearly a 9pt typed paper at one foot away from my face. This I was worried about. I didn’t want to be blind in the other direction. I can work on my computer, look out my window and read the name on the tail of an airplane. Not kidding.

I have a red spot on both eyes under my lids and was told it was a small broken capillary that will dissapate in a week or so. I have no pain, no blurryness or anything. Right after my surgery in the afternoon, that took maybe 3 minutes for the laser cut, then 5 minutes for the laser correction on each eye, I could see. I went home and slept the night away with two valiums and the help of my husband around the house. Up the next morning with beautiful vision. Have you ever gone to sleep with your contacts on by accident and woken up being able to see, but a little dry? Like that, only not dry. Beautiful. No more buying big black framed glasses so I can find them when they aren’t on my head. No more being afaid of swimming in the water or getting hit in the head playing sports.

I’m thrilled. I went to Berg-Feinfield in Sherman Oaks, CA. They were great. I know I was probably a good canidate, but I also know it has a lot to do with the surgeon and the equipment they use. I have a film and when I get it uploaded, I’ll link it here!

What does the ANS regulate?

Autonomic responses go to?

How many efferent neurons are needed to get a response from ANS to the efferent organ?

What are the 2 divisions of the ANS and how do they differ?

Explain the three ways the Efferent neuron (preganglionic) can go.



3>This one, please explain completely as it will be on your exam J


Where are the sympathetic ganglions located?

Where are cell bodies of parasympathetic neurons located?

Where are cell bodies of sympathetic neurons located? 

Which preganglionic neuron is long, sympathetic or parasympathetic?

What is Dual innervation?

What 2 drugs do we need to know that affect the ANS, and what do they do?

What is Cerebral Palsy? 

What is the infection of the Meninges? 

What does the virus Poliomyelitis destroy?



















Activity of Glands











Oh, Once One Takes The Anatomy Final, Very Good Vacations Are Heavenly



Cranial Nerve Name & location runs through


Areas of innervations


















































How many Cranial Nerves?  24, 12 pairs! 

The cat will have only one to identify in lab – the Vagus nerve, innervating ____________.        

The only ones to know in the Sheep Brain. 




















Motor Nerves go through the anterior rami and will form nerve plexuses on both sides of the body. They are:

             1.) ______________

            2.) _______________

            3.) _______________

            4.) _______________


The Posterior rami has motor nerves that will go around back and innervate the deep _________________.

What makes up the PNS?


What are Afferent fibers?


What are Efferent fibers? Name 2 types and give examples?


What are the Cranial nerves (make a chart, 3 columns), do they have s, m, or mx, and what is it they sense, or motor?


Which nerves of the 12 pairs are related to eye movements?


Where do the spinal nerves, not cranial nerves, exit the vertebral canal? What is the one exception?


After nerves become spinal nerves, are they mixed or are they still just sensory or motor?


What does the vertebral root consist of?


What does the Posterior root consist of?


The Ventral Root cell bodies are located in the grey matter of the cord. T  F


1. Ascending tract

2. Posterior funiculus

3. Lateral funiculus

4. Dorsal root ganglion

5. Anterior ramus

6. Ramus communicans

7. Anterior funiculus

8. Posterior horn

9. Descending tract

10. Posterior root (sensory)

11. Posterior ramus

12. Sympathetic trunk ganglion

13. Anterior root (motor)

14. Anterior horn



Anterior root cell bodies are located outside the cord in root ganglia.  T  F


What does the spinal nerve branch into after leaving the intervertebral foramen?


What is the posterior ramis responsible for?


What is the anterior ramis responsible for? 


What are the rami communicates for?


Name 4 principal plexuses of the anterior nerves?


What is different between destination/direction of posterior ramus, and anterior ramus innervations? One goes directly,……….. one forms……., and has additional…..which go……….

I wrote this story. I want you to try to come up with a better one using as much of the nervous system areas as you can. You are all younger than me, so I know you have more of those neurons working for you! After you write it, send it as a comment back to me and I’ll post it!


            “I want to eat.” I said this (Broca’s area, coming from my Frontal Lobe) even though, I must have felt an empty stomach first (General Sensory Functions from my Parietal lobe) . This was information I associated in my mind, hungry feeling – I’m hungry! (shared on both sides of the hemisphere, so it came through the associative tract.) The right side of my cerebrum started imagining my favorite food, chili cheese fries. This time I took the commissural tract, across 2 hemispheres.

            How did I come up with chili cheese fries? I have to assume my Insula (memory and interpretation of taste) along with the visual images I have from my Occipital lobe, have Projected this idea to me. (Projection Tracts).

            I can smell someone eating some noisily close by. (Temporal lobe) It has all my Primary Sensory areas going! Incoming Visual information, incoming Auditory information, my Gustatory wants to kick in, the Olfactory is well aware, and I’m beginning to get pains in my stomach as my Somatosensory cortex also reacts.

            I will have to refer to my cerebellum for coordination and learned movements to get my legs a-walking! As the Frontal Eye Field of my motor area, and my Primary Motor Cortex send those muscles their newly needed activity, my Motor Speech Area once again kicks in (to place my order!). I use all my Frontal lobe to send information down the brain stem, through the Pons to my spinal cord.

            As this info went through the Pons, it was noticed by my Medulla Oblongata, getting my heart rate going, my breathing rate and blood pressure up, and I’m salvitating. I’m able to send the innervation through the Anterior Horn to my leg muscles. Yep, those descending projection tracts are working, and the Cerebral Nuclei (caudate nucleus, and lentiform nucleus) are indeed moving me along!

            I finally get my chili cheese fires, and the neurons in my Lateral Horn are working on my smooth muscles and glands, to regulate my Autonomic Motor System. My Viscerosensory pathway is working, well, … maybe a little … overtime.

            My Somatosensory pathway says I ate them too fast while the cheese was too hot. This sensory is going through the Posterior Horns, through those interneurons, and back up to my questioning mind.

            Yes, this went through the Medulla Oblongata, because all tracts must ascend or descend thru it.

            My Limbic system is getting some info. The Hippocampus is storing this memory about eating too fast! Reminding my Olfactory cortex not to get over emotionally hungry when we smell those chili cheese fries, and up to the Hypothalamus to control my food intake!

            I just hope my Epithalamus will let me sleep tonight