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 This artery off the Aortic Arch is the Brachiocephalic, and will split to 3, what are they?





This artery picked up, is the Celiac Artery. What does it bring blood to? Where did it originate?



What is the difference between lymph capillaries and Blood capillaries?

Blind lymph capillaries are more permeable and only take interstitial fluid back to the Venus supply.



Organs: What are their functions?                                      Tonsils: What are their functions?


Pharyngeal Tonsils-

Lymph Nodes   

Palatine Tonsils –


Lingual Tonsils-


Q. Difference between organs and tonsils? A. ____  are surrounded by a connective tissue capsule.




          Histology: White Pulp (1&4)  and Red Pulp (2&3)  

          Functions: 1. Immune response to antigens/blood

                           2.  Reservoir for RBC & Platelets

                           3. Phagocytize old RBC & Platelets

                           4. Phagocytize bacteria and foreign material


Conditions Mix/Match

1. Atherosclerosis (arteriosclerosis)


a. Abnormally large # immature WBCs in blood

2.  Myocardial infarction (heart attack)


b. Fewer than normal WBCs in blood

3.  Ischemic heart disease


c. Abnormally large # of WBCs in blood

4.  Angina pectoris


d. Abnormally large # RBCs in blood

5.  Hypertension


e. Weakened, stretched, swollen veins

6.  Anemia


f. Abnormally low Hb concentration or RBC count

7.  Leukemia


g. BP in excess of 120/80 mmHg

8.  Leucocytosis


h. Pain resulting from ischemia

9.  Polycythemia


i. Tissue lacks o2, reduced Blood flow

10. Varicose Veins


j. Branch of coronary artery blocked

11. Leukopenia


k. Plaques (atheromas) clog vessels

1k, 2j, 3i, 4h, 5g, 6f, 7a, 8c, 9d, 10e, 11b

This lecture section – lets do circulatory pathways!

Like taking a trip to the beach, we will need to travel on certain roads to get there and back, and because we have limited time for this pleasure (we have toooo much anatomy studying to do) we must take the quickest path to get there and back.

I will state a FROM location, and a TO location. See if you can get there and back. Please don’t forget about the little side streets (or our ‘ABCs’-arterioles, capillaries, venules).

Starting Simple, Pathway #1:

FROM Superior Vena Cava TO Pulmonary Veins   Answer Pathway #1   (11 steps)

Pathway #2 FROM Hepatic Vein TO Brain       Answer Pathway #2  (22 steps)

Pathway #3 FROM elbow of right arm TO Spleen    Answer Pathway #3 (long one!)

Pathway #4 FROM Thoracic Vertebral Column TO Left Ovary  Answer Pathway #4 (25 steps)

Pathway #5 Pulmonary Circulation     Answer Pathway #5 (16 steps)

Pathway #6 FROM Pancreas TO Spleen    Answer Pathway #6  (30 steps)

Pathway #7 FROM 3rd Digit of the Right Hand TO 3rd Digit of the Left Hand  Answer Pathway #7 (32 steps)

     These questions are done up to print out as 3x1inch squares. You can print them on labels and stick to cards or just cut them, and use them as cards.


I have some hints to make flash cards work for you.  Click here to learn how. indexcard2



Question on one side of card

Answer on the back of the card

  The Circulatory System is made up of ?

   The heart is enclosed by the?

The Pericardium is made up of ___ Parts.

What is the F______ Pericardium?

What is the S_______ pericardium?

  Explain the Histology of the Fibrous Pericardium

  Explain the Serous pericardium’s Histology, and 3 special sections of it.

The Heart Wall is made up of __ parts, What are their names and Histology of each.

What are the 4 Chamber of the Heart and the septum between each?

  What is the function of the ____ or AVs?

What are their names and location? Does one have a second name?

Explain how AVs work. When you explain, use words Papillary Muscles, Chor____ _____, and C_____.

What is a Semilunar valve? Name 2. Location and Function?

Explain the process of the Semilunar valves, describe what they look like and when they are open.

Coronary Circulation has arteries (name 2) and Sinuses (name 3). What is the main sinus that the 3 drain into?

Where do the Coronary arteries go off the heart, and where do the coronary sinuses go into the heart?

The cardiac cycle is a repeating pattern of ______ and ___________. What are the 2 names given to these patterns?

Explain the process of the Cardiac cycle. # 7 main steps.

What do we call the way the heart beats?  The C_______ S_______ of the ______.

Does the heart initiate its own heart beat or is it initiated by our nervous system?

What do we mean by myogenetic or auto-rhythmicity?

What are pacemaker cells?

Where is the SA or ____________ node located?

How many times per minute does the heart beat and who controls it?

During the Conductive System of the Heart, There are 5 items that will work, one after the other, what are they?

  Where is the SA node located?

Where is the AV node located/

Where is the Bundle of His or ______________ located?

Where are the B________ branches located?

Where are the P__________ F_____ located?

The Heart Rate is controlled by _________ via ___________.

What system and nerve increases the rate of the heart rate, and what is the direction of the nerve innervation?

What system and nerve decreases the rate of the heart and what is the direction of the nerve innervation?

What are the 5 functions of Blood?

What is blood made of and its percents?

What are the solutes in Plasma? (hint: Plasma is HIP)

What is hemopoiesis?

What are RBCs, WBCs?

Where are blood cells formed prenatally?

Where does hemopoiesis occur after birth?

Describe  5 things about erythrocytes including life span

How does erythropoiesis occur?

What is the normal count of WBC?

How are Leucocytes Classified?

Name 3 Granulocytes and their percents. (hint for all leucocytes: Never Let My Engine Blow, 60, 30, 8, 3, 0

Which WBC does Diapedesis?

Which WBC mediates inflammatory response with histamine and Heparin?

Which WBC has increased phagocytic complexes during allergic/parasitic reactions?

What is a Monocytes and how long does it live?

What is a lymphocyte and how long does it live, what does it do?

What are Thrombocytes?

Blood Vessels:  What is their function?

What are the 3 layers of blood vessel walls?

The adventia externa is what tissue?

The Tunica media is what histology?

What is the histology of endothelium/tunica interna?

What ar the 3 classes of blood vessels?

Who carries blood away from the heart? To the Heart?

What are the smallest 3 vessels?

Describe a large artery

Describe a small artery

Arterioles have what histology and what system innervates them?

Capillaries main function?

Venules merge to form? Some veins contain _____, and what muscle helps move blood?

Explain blood flow in Systemic circulation. (8)

What is the function of Systemic circulation?

What is the function of Pulmonary function?

Explain the blood flow in pulmonary circulation.(9)

What is the name of the system that returns blood from gastrointestinal organs?

Does blood pass thru 6 capillary beds between the time it leaves the heart until it returns to the heart? How many? Why?

What does the liver filter out?

What 3 veins join the Hepatic Portal Vein?

What does the Inferior mesenteric vein drain?

What does the splenic vein drain?

 What does the superior mesenteric vein drain?

What is the function of Hepatic veins?

What are the capillaries of the liver called?


*Add any new flash cards that covers material your professor might have added in lecture or lab not covered here.

• Functions
• Histology-layers/pericardium
• Chambers/septums
• Atrioventricular valves-function
• Papillary muscles
• Chordae tendineae cusps
• Semilunar valves-function
• Coronary Circulation
• Arteries
• Veins
• Cardiac Cycle
• Systole/Diastole-process
• Conducting System of the Heart
• Autorhythmicity
• SA node
• 5 structures – location
• Heart Rate – via

• 5 Functions
• Composition
• Hemopoiesis
• RBC, WBC names
• Location – prenatally, after birth
• Erythrocytes
• Function, erythropoiesis-hypoxia to rbc
• Leucocytes (nerver let my engine burn, 60 30 8 3 0)
• Classified by
• Granulocytes (3) %, function, size,
• Agranulocytes (2)
• Platelets – describe, function, characteristics

Blood Vessels
• Describe
• Layers – histology, location
• Classified by
• ABC’s
• (6) vessels, histology
• Tunics- histology Blood Flow through Heart (16 items) (function)

Blood flow – Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation
Hepatic Portal System
• 4 main functions
• 3 main veins
• direction from organ to heart


AN node –

Anterior interventricular Artery –

Atria vs atrium –

Autorhythmicity –

AV –

Bicuspid, Tricuspid valve –

Bundle of His –

Chordae tendineae –

Circumflex Artery –

Coronary plexus –

Coronary sinus –

Coronary Veins –

Cusps –

Deoxygenated, Oxygenated –

Diastole –

Endocardium –

Epicardium –

Interatrial septum –

Interventricular septum –

Lubb and Dubb –

Myocardium – 

Pacemaker –

Papillary muscles –

Pericardial sac –

Pericardium –

Purkinje fibers –

SA node –

SV –

Systole –



Adventia –


Basophil –

Biconcave –

Endothelium –

Eosinophil –


Erythropoietin –

Formed elements –

Granulocyte –

Hemoglobin –

Hemopoiesis –

Hepatic Portal System –

Homeostatis –

Leucocyte –


Lymphocyte –

Megakaryocyte –

Monocyte –

Myeloid tissue –

Neutrophil –

Plasma –

Pulmonary circulation –

Renal Erythropoietic Factor –

Systemic circulation –

Thrombocyte –

Vasoconstriction –

Vasodilation –

 Only current worksheets will be linked. The others will become available as we review their areas.

Exam worksheets are always available in SI, then the week of the exam, they will be available here.

Exam I Worksheets:




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