You are currently browsing the tag archive for the ‘nervous system’ tag.

What makes up the PNS?


What are Afferent fibers?


What are Efferent fibers? Name 2 types and give examples?


What are the Cranial nerves (make a chart, 3 columns), do they have s, m, or mx, and what is it they sense, or motor?


Which nerves of the 12 pairs are related to eye movements?


Where do the spinal nerves, not cranial nerves, exit the vertebral canal? What is the one exception?


After nerves become spinal nerves, are they mixed or are they still just sensory or motor?


What does the vertebral root consist of?


What does the Posterior root consist of?


The Ventral Root cell bodies are located in the grey matter of the cord. T  F


1. Ascending tract

2. Posterior funiculus

3. Lateral funiculus

4. Dorsal root ganglion

5. Anterior ramus

6. Ramus communicans

7. Anterior funiculus

8. Posterior horn

9. Descending tract

10. Posterior root (sensory)

11. Posterior ramus

12. Sympathetic trunk ganglion

13. Anterior root (motor)

14. Anterior horn



Anterior root cell bodies are located outside the cord in root ganglia.  T  F


What does the spinal nerve branch into after leaving the intervertebral foramen?


What is the posterior ramis responsible for?


What is the anterior ramis responsible for? 


What are the rami communicates for?


Name 4 principal plexuses of the anterior nerves?


What is different between destination/direction of posterior ramus, and anterior ramus innervations? One goes directly,……….. one forms……., and has additional…..which go……….


I wrote this story. I want you to try to come up with a better one using as much of the nervous system areas as you can. You are all younger than me, so I know you have more of those neurons working for you! After you write it, send it as a comment back to me and I’ll post it!


            “I want to eat.” I said this (Broca’s area, coming from my Frontal Lobe) even though, I must have felt an empty stomach first (General Sensory Functions from my Parietal lobe) . This was information I associated in my mind, hungry feeling – I’m hungry! (shared on both sides of the hemisphere, so it came through the associative tract.) The right side of my cerebrum started imagining my favorite food, chili cheese fries. This time I took the commissural tract, across 2 hemispheres.

            How did I come up with chili cheese fries? I have to assume my Insula (memory and interpretation of taste) along with the visual images I have from my Occipital lobe, have Projected this idea to me. (Projection Tracts).

            I can smell someone eating some noisily close by. (Temporal lobe) It has all my Primary Sensory areas going! Incoming Visual information, incoming Auditory information, my Gustatory wants to kick in, the Olfactory is well aware, and I’m beginning to get pains in my stomach as my Somatosensory cortex also reacts.

            I will have to refer to my cerebellum for coordination and learned movements to get my legs a-walking! As the Frontal Eye Field of my motor area, and my Primary Motor Cortex send those muscles their newly needed activity, my Motor Speech Area once again kicks in (to place my order!). I use all my Frontal lobe to send information down the brain stem, through the Pons to my spinal cord.

            As this info went through the Pons, it was noticed by my Medulla Oblongata, getting my heart rate going, my breathing rate and blood pressure up, and I’m salvitating. I’m able to send the innervation through the Anterior Horn to my leg muscles. Yep, those descending projection tracts are working, and the Cerebral Nuclei (caudate nucleus, and lentiform nucleus) are indeed moving me along!

            I finally get my chili cheese fires, and the neurons in my Lateral Horn are working on my smooth muscles and glands, to regulate my Autonomic Motor System. My Viscerosensory pathway is working, well, … maybe a little … overtime.

            My Somatosensory pathway says I ate them too fast while the cheese was too hot. This sensory is going through the Posterior Horns, through those interneurons, and back up to my questioning mind.

            Yes, this went through the Medulla Oblongata, because all tracts must ascend or descend thru it.

            My Limbic system is getting some info. The Hippocampus is storing this memory about eating too fast! Reminding my Olfactory cortex not to get over emotionally hungry when we smell those chili cheese fries, and up to the Hypothalamus to control my food intake!

            I just hope my Epithalamus will let me sleep tonight


Primary motor cortex

Premotor cortex

Motor speech area, Broca area

Frontal eye fields

Higher intellectual functions (concentration, decision making, planning); personality; verbal communications; voluntary motor control of skeletal muscles


Primary somatosensory cortex

Somatosensory association area

Part of Wernicke Area

Part of Gnostic area

Sensory interpretation of textures and shapes; understanding speech and formulating words to express thoughts and emotions (general sensory)


Primary auditory cortex

Primary olfactory cortex

Auditory association area

Olfactory association area

Part of Wernicke area

Part of Gnostic area

Interpretation of auditory and olfactory sensations; storage of auditory and olfactory experiences; understanding speech

 (hearing, smell)



Primary visual cortex

Visual Association area

Conscious perception of visual stimuli; integration of ey-focussing movements; correlation of visual images with previous visual experiences (sores visual memories)


Primary gustatory cortex

Interpretation of taste; memory


Roof of diencephalons/pineal gland

Secretes hormone melatonin to regulate day-night cycles


Pair oval masses on side of 3rd ventricle

Relay station for sensory info. Except olfactory.


Includes infundibulum start which extends to pituitary gland

Master control of ANS, Endocrine system, Reg of Body Temp, emotional behavior, food and water intake, sleep-wake circadian rhythms.

Limbic System

Forms ring (limbus) around diencephalons

Affects memory formation, integration of past memories of physical sensations and emotional states



Superior colliculi – visual reflex center

Inferior colliculi – auditory reflex center



Pneumotaxic and apneustic centers regulating rate/depth of breathing and influence respiratory center of medulla

Nerves 5,6,7,8

Medulla Oblongata


All tracts ascend/descend thru medulla. Nerves 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Pyramids for decussating.

Cardiac Ctr – reg HR, Vasomotor Ctr – BP, Respiratory Ctr – reg respiratory rate. Other nuclei – coughing sneezing salivation, swallowing, gagging, and vomiting.


Midbrain, Pons, medulla oblongata.

Connects forebrain/cerebellum to cord. Bi-directional passageway for tracts.


3 layers, arbor vitae, folia, vermis, flocculonodular lobe. Cerebellar peduncles

Coordinates skeletal muscle movements, smooth coordinated movements. Equilibrium, posture. Muscle tone.


What is the name of the commissural Tract type connecting the 2 hemispheres of the Cerebrum?


In the longitudinal fissure what would you find?


The cerebral hemispheres receive and project their commands and sensory to the same sides of the body.  T  F


What is the term used for the functional differences of the cerebrum?


What is the right hemisphere specialized for?


Name the 5 lobes of the Cerebrum and the main functions of each?


What cortex is in the pre-central gyrus?


What cortex is in the Post central gyrus?


Motor areas control what? Sensory areas provide what?


What 5 cortex are the primary sensory ones and what do they deal with?

Can you name the 6 Association areas and their main functions?


What is the Cerebral Nuclei and where is it located?


The Cerebral Nuclei receives inputs from ___________ and send to _________.

Who produces melatonin?

Who has the infundibulum and what is it attached to?


Who releases Oxytocin and ADH?


What is the Limbic System?


Can you name a few structures recognized to be a part of the limbic System?

Convolutions –



Longitudinal Fissure –



Tracts –



Corpus Callosum –



Hemisphere lateralization –



Cerebral Lateralization –



Representational Hemisphere –



Categorical Hemisphere –



Pre-Central Gyrus –



Parieto – occipital Sulcus –



Insula –



Association Areas in the Cerebrum –



Broca’s Area –



Somatic Motor Association  Area –



Gnostic Area –



Cerebral Nuclei –



Caudate Nucleus –



Putamen – 


Globus Pallidus –



Claustrum –



Lentifor Nucleus –



Melatonin –



Intermediate mass –



Infundibulum –



Oxytocin and ADH –



Circadian Rhythms



Cingulate gyrus –



Parahippocampal gyrus



Hippocampus –



Amygdaloid Body –



Olfactory bulbs, tracts, cortex –


Fornix –



Limbic System –


What is the name of the group of axons inferior to the conus medullaris?


What anchors the conus medullaris to the coccyx?


What is the Gray matter of the spinal cord made of?


What are funiculi, and can you name all three?


What does a pathway consist of?


What are the 2 sensory pathways and what type of stimuli does each consist of?


Where do descending projection tracts originate from, and are they motor or sensory?


If direct pathways include 3 specific tracts from the primary motor cortex, how does the Indirect Pathway work?


Spinal Cord

Spinal Cord

*pathway for sensory motor impulses;   * responsible for spinal reflexes , quick reactions to stimulus


Filum Terminale

Pia mater anchoring the conus medullaris to the coccyx


Ascending pathway

carrying sensory information from body to brain


Descending pathway

Carrying motor information from brain to muscles or glands


Sensory pathway

Conduct information about limb position, touch, temp, pressure, pain. Somatosensory/Viscerosensory


Motor Pathways

Regulate skeletal muscle activity


Direct or pyramidal pathway

Includes 3 tracts originating from the primary motor cortex: Corticobulbar tract, Lateral corticospinal Tract, Anterior corticospinal Tract


Indirect Pathway

Complex route of axons from nuclei in brain stem to interneurons or motor neurons.




What 2 cells are found in the PNS and what are they responsible for?


What is the difference between a Tract and a Nerve?


What is an ascending Tract?


What is the difference of a descending Tract?


What is the difference between Ganglia and Nuclei?


What does the efferent System control?


What nervous cell is 90% of the nervous system?


What is a perikaryon and describe what is found in it?


What is the difference between Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes?


What is a neurolemmocyte?


What are the structural classifications of neurons? Can you draw each structure?


What about Functional classifications? How many types and which is most numerous?


Neurons are capable of mitosis.  T  F


What is the blood brain barrier? What type of cell is responsible?


Name 4 neuralgia cells and explain what each is responsible for.


What is the process of Nerve Impulse Transmission?


Where are neurotransmitters stored? Can you name 5?


At what age do the primary vesicles of the brain further develop into 5?


What makes up Gray Matter?


What makes up White Matter?


Describe Cranial Meninges. Do you know what type of tissue?


Which membranes are avascular?


Explain what CSF is. How is it formed?  How does it circulate?  How is it reabsorbed?

 Only current worksheets will be linked. The others will become available as we review their areas.

Exam worksheets are always available in SI, then the week of the exam, they will be available here.

Exam I Worksheets:




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