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Skeletal Questions


Can you name 5 fractures and describe?


What is the functions (6) of the curvature of the vertebral column?


What are the 4 curves of the vertebral and which is present at birth?


What are the Functions of the paranasal sinuses?


Describe the paranasal sinuses, and list 1 and it’s specific location.


What is a Fontanel?


What is the name of one Fontanel and what does it articulate with?


How do long bones increase in diameter by?


How do long bones increase in length by?


Name 4 minerals responsible for Growth and what the do.


What does thyroxine do?


What comes before “osteoblasts form bone matrix”, in endochondral ossification?


What are the types of ossification?


What comes after “trapped osteoblasts called osteocytes” in (other) ossification?


What bones are formed by endochondral ossification?


Both ossifications start from middle layer of___________ called __________.


Cartilage turns into bone.   T      F


What is the composition of bone? What constitutes the 33%, What constitutes the 67%


Name and draw the typical long bone, and identify at least 5 main points.


How is bone classified and name one bone for each.


Describe the two different Types of bone.


What are the functions of the Skeletal System? (6)


How many bones are in the appendicular?


What is the Histology of the Haversian system?


What is the difference between osteoprogenitor, osteoblast, osteocyte and osteoclast cells?




1. Name 4 different pairs of ligaments that support the uterus and hold it in place.


2. What is homologous to the labia majora in the male reproductive system?


3. What are the different types of follicles in follicular development (5)?


4. What disorder is characterized by inflammation in pelvic cavity, tubes, ovaries, etc.?


5. Describe the route of sperm from Seminiferous tubules to urethra.


6. What is the role of the interstitial cells surrounding the Seminiferous tubules?


7. What is the name of the innermost wall of the uterus and the 2 layers that form this wall?


8. Describe the histology of the mammary glands.


9. What are the 3 phases of the uterine cycle?


10. What is the composition of Prostatic secretion?


11. What are the Accessory glands of the male reproductive system and their functions?


12. What are the 3 parts of Sperm and their functions?



1. broad, round, uterosacral and transverse cervical

2. scrotum

3. The Primary follicle, secondary follicle, mature (Graafian) follicle, Corpus Luteum, and Corpus Alibicans.

4. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

5. Semininferous tubulestubuli rectirete testesefferent ductsepididymisvas deferensejaculary ducturethra

6. These cells are stimulated by Lutenizing hormones to produce androgen hormones, such as testosterone.

7.  Endometrium. The 2 layers are the basal layer (stratum basalis) and the functional (stratum functionalis)

8.  Modified sweat glands are located under adipose tissue which is covered by the pectoralis major and serratus anterior skeletal muscles.

9. Menstrual, Proliferative and Secretory phases.

10. mucin, citric acid, seminal plasmin, and Prostatic specific antigen.

11. Seminal vesicles, prostate and Bulbourethral glands. Their secretions nourish the sperm and neutralize the acidity of the vagina.

12. The head – Acrosomal cap (enzymes) and nucleus (chromosomes), the Middle piece – contains mitochondria for ATP, and the Tail or flagellum – for motion

Describe the location of the kidneys anatomically.                                                            

Explain Renal Reabsorption.

Explain Renal Secretion.

What are the 11 steps of Micturition?

If you were blood, what would your path be starting at the Aorta, going to the Glomerulus?

If you were blood, what would your path be starting from the Kidney, going to the Renal Vein?

List 3 regions of the Kidney and what you would find there.

What 3 structures in the Urinary System would you find smooth muscle? 

What are the functions of the Urinary System?

What disorder is when the bladder is inflamed?

What does a Nephron consist of?

What does the Distal Convoluted Tubule secrete?

What does the internal urethral sphincter do and what is its location?

What is Calculi?

What is another name for cessation of glomerular filtration?

What is Diabetes Insipidus?

What is the difference between Hematouria and Dysuria?

What is inflammation of the kidney called?

What is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule?

What is the difference in length, and mucosa layers, of the male and female urethra?

What is the function of the ureter? The urethra?

What is the Histology of the following?

            Glomerular capsule

            Glomerulus Ureter


            Urinary Bladder


What is the Urinary System comprised of?

What order do these 3 processes happen: Reabsorption, Filtration, and Secretion?

What processes happens in the Nephrons?


If you were to ingest food, where would it pass through (6) and what would its name be in each location?

What are the accessory digestive organs (4), and what to they secrete?

What are the functions of the digestive system? 

Explain Propulsion.  What 2 processes are involved and the difference between the two? 

What is the Histology of the Mucosa layer of the tract? 

What does the Muscularis layer have 2 layers of? 

What is the visceral peritoneum and what is its histology?

What is the labial frenulum?

Describe the location of the mouth? 

What 3 accessory organs would you find in the oral cavity?

What are the 5 sensations perceived by taste buds and their location?

Describe a tooth.

What are Molars and their function? 

Name the 3 salivary glands, their openings into the mouth, and location. 

What type of gland are salivary glands? Structurally and functionally. 

What muscles are located in the pharynx? 

What is the lining of the esophagus?

Name 2 sphincters of the esophagus.

Where is the greater omentum located, and what does it attach to?

Name 5 parts of the stomach? 

What are 4 gastric glands, and what does each produce?

Where is the small intestine located? 

What parts of the digestive system are retroperitoneal? 

What is the hepatopancreatic duct? 

What are the folds called in the mucosa and submucosal of the small intestine? 

What do you call the fingerlike projections on the surface of the villi?

What is the function of the large intestine? 

Name 7 parts of the large intestine?

 What is the smooth muscle on the outside of the large intestine?

 What is haustra?

 What are epiploic appendages made of?

 What is the location of the mesocolon?

Name 2 sphincters of the anal canal, their location and histology.

 Describe 6 things the liver has.

 If you were bile, where would you be created, and then what path would you take to the duodenum?  Where would you be stored? 

What are the functions of the liver?

What are the functions of the pancreas?

What is the Islets of Langerhans?

What is the composition of pancreatic juice?

     These questions are done up to print out as 3x1inch squares. You can print them on labels and stick to cards or just cut them, and use them as cards.


I have some hints to make flash cards work for you.  Click here to learn how. indexcard2



Question on one side of card

Answer on the back of the card

  The Circulatory System is made up of ?

   The heart is enclosed by the?

The Pericardium is made up of ___ Parts.

What is the F______ Pericardium?

What is the S_______ pericardium?

  Explain the Histology of the Fibrous Pericardium

  Explain the Serous pericardium’s Histology, and 3 special sections of it.

The Heart Wall is made up of __ parts, What are their names and Histology of each.

What are the 4 Chamber of the Heart and the septum between each?

  What is the function of the ____ or AVs?

What are their names and location? Does one have a second name?

Explain how AVs work. When you explain, use words Papillary Muscles, Chor____ _____, and C_____.

What is a Semilunar valve? Name 2. Location and Function?

Explain the process of the Semilunar valves, describe what they look like and when they are open.

Coronary Circulation has arteries (name 2) and Sinuses (name 3). What is the main sinus that the 3 drain into?

Where do the Coronary arteries go off the heart, and where do the coronary sinuses go into the heart?

The cardiac cycle is a repeating pattern of ______ and ___________. What are the 2 names given to these patterns?

Explain the process of the Cardiac cycle. # 7 main steps.

What do we call the way the heart beats?  The C_______ S_______ of the ______.

Does the heart initiate its own heart beat or is it initiated by our nervous system?

What do we mean by myogenetic or auto-rhythmicity?

What are pacemaker cells?

Where is the SA or ____________ node located?

How many times per minute does the heart beat and who controls it?

During the Conductive System of the Heart, There are 5 items that will work, one after the other, what are they?

  Where is the SA node located?

Where is the AV node located/

Where is the Bundle of His or ______________ located?

Where are the B________ branches located?

Where are the P__________ F_____ located?

The Heart Rate is controlled by _________ via ___________.

What system and nerve increases the rate of the heart rate, and what is the direction of the nerve innervation?

What system and nerve decreases the rate of the heart and what is the direction of the nerve innervation?

What are the 5 functions of Blood?

What is blood made of and its percents?

What are the solutes in Plasma? (hint: Plasma is HIP)

What is hemopoiesis?

What are RBCs, WBCs?

Where are blood cells formed prenatally?

Where does hemopoiesis occur after birth?

Describe  5 things about erythrocytes including life span

How does erythropoiesis occur?

What is the normal count of WBC?

How are Leucocytes Classified?

Name 3 Granulocytes and their percents. (hint for all leucocytes: Never Let My Engine Blow, 60, 30, 8, 3, 0

Which WBC does Diapedesis?

Which WBC mediates inflammatory response with histamine and Heparin?

Which WBC has increased phagocytic complexes during allergic/parasitic reactions?

What is a Monocytes and how long does it live?

What is a lymphocyte and how long does it live, what does it do?

What are Thrombocytes?

Blood Vessels:  What is their function?

What are the 3 layers of blood vessel walls?

The adventia externa is what tissue?

The Tunica media is what histology?

What is the histology of endothelium/tunica interna?

What ar the 3 classes of blood vessels?

Who carries blood away from the heart? To the Heart?

What are the smallest 3 vessels?

Describe a large artery

Describe a small artery

Arterioles have what histology and what system innervates them?

Capillaries main function?

Venules merge to form? Some veins contain _____, and what muscle helps move blood?

Explain blood flow in Systemic circulation. (8)

What is the function of Systemic circulation?

What is the function of Pulmonary function?

Explain the blood flow in pulmonary circulation.(9)

What is the name of the system that returns blood from gastrointestinal organs?

Does blood pass thru 6 capillary beds between the time it leaves the heart until it returns to the heart? How many? Why?

What does the liver filter out?

What 3 veins join the Hepatic Portal Vein?

What does the Inferior mesenteric vein drain?

What does the splenic vein drain?

 What does the superior mesenteric vein drain?

What is the function of Hepatic veins?

What are the capillaries of the liver called?


*Add any new flash cards that covers material your professor might have added in lecture or lab not covered here.

To help get those synapses working, I am doing a Daily 5 questions posted here. Send me your answer everyday. I’ll email you back the correct answers. We will do 5 questions everyday till your next test – the week of October 29th. This will make you write/type your answers down.  There will be one question on the notes for the next lecture. Just hit ‘comment’ at the end of this post.



  Play the Daily 5 and win an A!




1.) What are the hair cells called located in the saccule?


2.) What are crista ampularis?


3.) What is the spiral organ?


4.) Where do impulses from vestibular nuclei go?


5.) What scala begins at the oval window, and what is on the other side of the oval window?





To find out more about the Daily 5 and answers to past sets, click on Daily 5










Receptors can be classified according to L________, What are they and their L_________? (3)


How do the lacrimal glands work?


What are the extrinsic muscles of the eye? (6)


What are the three layers of the eye and the parts included?











What is the avascular layer of the eye? the vascular layer?


What is the Optic Disk?


How does the Lens change shape for accommodation?


What muscles of the pupil change to adjust for light, and what do they make the pupil do?


What are the 3 regions of the ear and the parts they include?






            2a. (list 3 bones, and a T____ cavity)

3. Osseous labyrinth

  • List 3 Scala chambers


3. Membranous labyrinth



What are the 2 conducting Medias of the ear and where are they located?


Explain the Equilibrium Pathway


What is presbyopia?


What disorder is the shortness of the eyeball which causes light waves to focus behind the retina?

What does the ANS regulate?

Autonomic responses go to?

How many efferent neurons are needed to get a response from ANS to the efferent organ?

What are the 2 divisions of the ANS and how do they differ?

Explain the three ways the Efferent neuron (preganglionic) can go.



3>This one, please explain completely as it will be on your exam J


Where are the sympathetic ganglions located?

Where are cell bodies of parasympathetic neurons located?

Where are cell bodies of sympathetic neurons located? 

Which preganglionic neuron is long, sympathetic or parasympathetic?

What is Dual innervation?

What 2 drugs do we need to know that affect the ANS, and what do they do?

What is Cerebral Palsy? 

What is the infection of the Meninges? 

What does the virus Poliomyelitis destroy?



















Activity of Glands










What is the name of the commissural Tract type connecting the 2 hemispheres of the Cerebrum?


In the longitudinal fissure what would you find?


The cerebral hemispheres receive and project their commands and sensory to the same sides of the body.  T  F


What is the term used for the functional differences of the cerebrum?


What is the right hemisphere specialized for?


Name the 5 lobes of the Cerebrum and the main functions of each?


What cortex is in the pre-central gyrus?


What cortex is in the Post central gyrus?


Motor areas control what? Sensory areas provide what?


What 5 cortex are the primary sensory ones and what do they deal with?

Can you name the 6 Association areas and their main functions?


What is the Cerebral Nuclei and where is it located?


The Cerebral Nuclei receives inputs from ___________ and send to _________.

Who produces melatonin?

Who has the infundibulum and what is it attached to?


Who releases Oxytocin and ADH?


What is the Limbic System?


Can you name a few structures recognized to be a part of the limbic System?



What 2 cells are found in the PNS and what are they responsible for?


What is the difference between a Tract and a Nerve?


What is an ascending Tract?


What is the difference of a descending Tract?


What is the difference between Ganglia and Nuclei?


What does the efferent System control?


What nervous cell is 90% of the nervous system?


What is a perikaryon and describe what is found in it?


What is the difference between Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes?


What is a neurolemmocyte?


What are the structural classifications of neurons? Can you draw each structure?


What about Functional classifications? How many types and which is most numerous?


Neurons are capable of mitosis.  T  F


What is the blood brain barrier? What type of cell is responsible?


Name 4 neuralgia cells and explain what each is responsible for.


What is the process of Nerve Impulse Transmission?


Where are neurotransmitters stored? Can you name 5?


At what age do the primary vesicles of the brain further develop into 5?


What makes up Gray Matter?


What makes up White Matter?


Describe Cranial Meninges. Do you know what type of tissue?


Which membranes are avascular?


Explain what CSF is. How is it formed?  How does it circulate?  How is it reabsorbed?