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This Practical will include…

Upper Body Muscles (1-40)


• cats

• bodybuilder photos

• cadaver

• purple arm

The Brain and Spinal Cord

• sheep and human brains and spinal cord model

Cranial Nerves

• olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, auditory, vagus (in the cat) and accessory

Brachial Plexus

• musculocutaneous, radial, ulnar and median nerves.


• cow eye and human models


• human models


Be sure to view the Sample Practical Video (No. 2), available for home loan in the library or for viewing in the IMC.

Also don’t forget to bring a probe and gloves to the practical!



Astigmatism –


Canal of Schlemm –


Ciliary muscles –


Pupil –


Cochlear duct –


Conjunctiva –


Eustachian tube –


Ganglion cells –


Glaucoma –


Macula Lutea –


Meibomian glands –


Membranous labyrinth –


Organ of Corti –


Papillary sphincter muscles –


Pinna –


Refraction –


Sensineural deafness –


Spiral organ –  


Suspensory ligaments –


Vestibular nuclei –


Vitreous humor –


Zonule fibers –



Receptors can be classified according to L________, What are they and their L_________? (3)


How do the lacrimal glands work?


What are the extrinsic muscles of the eye? (6)


What are the three layers of the eye and the parts included?











What is the avascular layer of the eye? the vascular layer?


What is the Optic Disk?


How does the Lens change shape for accommodation?


What muscles of the pupil change to adjust for light, and what do they make the pupil do?


What are the 3 regions of the ear and the parts they include?






            2a. (list 3 bones, and a T____ cavity)

3. Osseous labyrinth

  • List 3 Scala chambers


3. Membranous labyrinth



What are the 2 conducting Medias of the ear and where are they located?


Explain the Equilibrium Pathway


What is presbyopia?


What disorder is the shortness of the eyeball which causes light waves to focus behind the retina?








Visual Pathway


1.)  Light enters pupil→aqueous humor→lens→vitreous humor, detected by Photoreceptors in Retina.


2.)    Electrical stimulation passed to Bipolar Cells→Glaglion cells of retina


3.)   Axons of Ganglion cells leave retina, forming Optic Nerve


4.)  Optic nerves converge at Optic Chiasm. Ganglion axons decussate/cross over to opposite side of brain


5.)  Ganglion axons enter Optic Tract, some to the Superior Colliculi, some to Thalamus


6.)  Neurons from Thalamus project to Visual Cortex of Occipital lobe


Eye Structure



Prevent sweat dripping


Prevent –


Protect from sun/foreign particles


Prevents –

Tarsal Glands

Containing sebaceous glands to prevent tear overflow and lids sticking together

Extrinsic Muscles

Lacrimal apparatus


Suspensory lens

Ciliary body



Eye Structure



Stratified –


Dense Connective Tissue, outer layer of –



Vascular – network of capillaries

Anterior cavity

Posterior cavity

Filled with Vitreous humor




Here is the Lasik Eye Surgery video I promised.

(These steps are from Dr. Alan Bergs site, as I had him for my surgeon.)

Step 1
First the surgeon applies a few numbing eye-drops to the eye prior to the procedure, and the surgeon marks the cornea with water-soluble ink to guide replacement of the flap. (My eye is upside down in this video)
Step 2
A thin corneal flap is created using an instrument called a microkeratome. This part of the procedure is called keratectomy and makes a “flap” in the corneal tissue on the central part of the eye, which is gently folded back, exposing the underlying layers of the cornea.  This flap can also be created with the use of the Intralase laser. (this is done with one machine, then you walk over to another machine- yes you can still see)

Step 3
The surgeon then uses the excimer laser to apply a cool beam of light to gently even out the curvature of the cornea this is done with CustomVue Wavefront guided technology. The protective corneal flap is then gently placed back in its original position and begins healing immediately.  (Hard to see it happening, look for those colored lights hitting the cornea.)

Step 4
After the flap is gently laid back, a few moisturizing drops are applied to soothe your eye and speed recovery. (As you can see, it takes no time.)

…below is a previous blog written in April 2008, after the surgery.

I went and had my eye vision corrected with Lasik surgery. That was Wednesday and today, three days later, I am still thrilled I did it. I have worn glasses for distance for 30 years. We are talking anything over four feet away (20/300). Now I can see 20/15 in both eyes. My near vision is fine. I can see clearly a 9pt typed paper at one foot away from my face. This I was worried about. I didn’t want to be blind in the other direction. I can work on my computer, look out my window and read the name on the tail of an airplane. Not kidding.

I have a red spot on both eyes under my lids and was told it was a small broken capillary that will dissapate in a week or so. I have no pain, no blurryness or anything. Right after my surgery in the afternoon, that took maybe 3 minutes for the laser cut, then 5 minutes for the laser correction on each eye, I could see. I went home and slept the night away with two valiums and the help of my husband around the house. Up the next morning with beautiful vision. Have you ever gone to sleep with your contacts on by accident and woken up being able to see, but a little dry? Like that, only not dry. Beautiful. No more buying big black framed glasses so I can find them when they aren’t on my head. No more being afaid of swimming in the water or getting hit in the head playing sports.

I’m thrilled. I went to Berg-Feinfield in Sherman Oaks, CA. They were great. I know I was probably a good canidate, but I also know it has a lot to do with the surgeon and the equipment they use. I have a film and when I get it uploaded, I’ll link it here!

 Only current worksheets will be linked. The others will become available as we review their areas.

Exam worksheets are always available in SI, then the week of the exam, they will be available here.

Exam I Worksheets:




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