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Lower Body Muscles

Upper Body Muscles


This Practical will include…

Upper Body Muscles (1-40)


• cats

• bodybuilder photos

• cadaver

• purple arm

The Brain and Spinal Cord

• sheep and human brains and spinal cord model

Cranial Nerves

• olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, auditory, vagus (in the cat) and accessory

Brachial Plexus

• musculocutaneous, radial, ulnar and median nerves.


• cow eye and human models


• human models


Be sure to view the Sample Practical Video (No. 2), available for home loan in the library or for viewing in the IMC.

Also don’t forget to bring a probe and gloves to the practical!



To remember these actions, you could think of yourself sleeping on your stomach. When you sleep, you dream of a CASTLe, but when you awake, it  will FADE Away. (That is so Funny!)



Muscle names:

C = Clavo-trapezius

A = Acromio-trapezius

S = Spino-trapezius

T= LevaTor scapulae

Le = Latissimus dorsi


Muscle actions in order with the mnemonic above:

F = Flex head laterally

A = Adducts scapula

D = Depresses scapula

E = Elevates scapula


Away = Adducts Humerus (That is so funny! = to remember it is the humerus)


1 – Clavo-trapezius

2 – Acromio-trapezius

3 – Spino-trapezius

4 – Levator scapulae

5 – Latissimus dorsi


Currently uploaded is the following worksheets (11) for Exam II

For Skeletal System (4):   Skeletal Questions, Skeletal Volcabulary, Skeletal System. Ossification

For Arthrology (4): Arthrology Questions, Arthrology Volcabulary, Joints, Synovial Joints

For Muscular System (2) – Muscular Questions, Muscular Volcabulary

Functions Exam II

They should all be listed at the Left.

Skeletal System

Support & Protection


Mineral Reservoir


Energy Storage



Paranasal Sinuses

Lighten Skull

Warm Air

Resonate Sound


Produce Mucus




Allows for flexibility and skull growth



Vertebral Column Curves

Increase strength, resilience, flexibility of spine, maintain balance, absorb shock, protect from fracture



Synovial Fluid



Cushions/shock absorber




Body Movement

Maintenance of posture

Heat production

Storage and movement of materials









Here is another trick, tip, learning device for Anatomy. It focuses on the Upper Leg muscles. I call it my Thigh-Burger. This is looking at the anterior side of the leg. The top of the bun would be medial, and the bottom of the bun Lateral. If I was laying on my bum, I would be in a lateral position.

Okay. I will story this up with a few actions, as this is what I need to recall.

First its ABout the bun, we have our bottom bun (Tensor Fasciae Latae/abducts thigh). We will ADd the top bun as we know we are going to put much inside of it and we don’t want it to fall out (Gracilis/adducts thigh). There are four (Quadriceps/flex and extend) important things in our Thigh-Burger.

1.) On the bottom of the bun we are going to include some nice dressing from Vastus, a lot (Vastus Lateralis) to the bottom bun with,

2.) a little inner drop of Vastus Intermedius to help EXtend our dressing. 

3.) We are also going to add it to the top bun (the Medial side/Vastus Medialis), because we want it on either side of the,

4.) main meat (Rectus Femoris).

But when we put the buns on the burger we think, Wait! I want more than that!

We take the top off and all the top Vastus (Medialis) stuck to the Rectus Femoris. But that’s okay, we will just ADD a few more items between the Vastus Medialis and the Top bun (Gracilis).

First, on top of the Vastus Medialis covered Rectus Femoris, we will place the lettuce (Adductor Longus), then some nice Tomatoes, but the are a little small – (Adductor Brevis), and we can’t over look a big, huge grouping of Magnificent onion rings (Adductor Magnus).

Okay, but how do we hold it all together so it won’t fall apart? We put the sword (Sartorius) over across it all to hold it together! (Sartorius/flexes and laterally rotates).

Can you eat/beat that?


Scapula Muscles

This is a story. We are applying a soft-ball type of analogy, though I don’t play baseball, so just play along with me. Move your arm with the story!


In order to pitch the ball, we will use the Supraspinatus muscle to abduct our arm away from our body, then using the Infraspinatus, we will laterally rotate our arm for the pitch, but wait, the sub-pitcher wants in….Subscapularis likes to pitch different, he will use a Medial rotation, and then of course using our last muscle on the scapula bone, our Teres Major will adduct, bring our arm back in. Sometimes even extending it if the sub was used.


So that’s the story, they all work the humerus.


The Supraspinatus Abducts the humerus

The Infraspinatus Laterally rotates the humerus

But wait the sub pitcher wants in and,

Subscapularis Medially rotates the humerus

Teres Major brings it back in, Adducts (or even extends)

I’m taking Anatomy at the community college in Antelope Valley. It’s a great course and I am always amazed they allow me in it. I suppose it appeals to the game player in me. The putting together a puzzle. ..Well, anyways I thought I would start posting any tricks I come up with to help with the memorization of names and processes. It also allows me to draw a little. The last practical was on upper body muscles and actions. I have 2 which will help with seven muscles and their actions.



There are three sections that unite to create the Greek triangle. The names of the three specify their origins. Starting from the back: Spino-deltoid, Acromio-deltoid, and Clavo-deltoid. They all unite to a tendon attaching to the deltoid tuberosity on the humerus.


In this order from back to front the three sections spell S-A-C.

Their actions create this phrase: Easy AB For deltoids!

Spino-deltoid is Easy or Extends, Acromio- is AB or Abducts, and Clavo- is for Flexes. Their actions are all on the humerus.


                                                      S          A         C

                                                     Easy     AB       For       Deltoids!


What are the normal properties of muscles?  What are the other 2 properties if something atypical happens?


What are the functions of muscles?


Which types of muscles are involuntary? Voluntary?


Give a location of a Single Unit smooth muscle. What makes the Single Unit contract?


Give a location of a Multiunit smooth muscle. What makes it contract?


Describe 5 things about a cardiac muscle, give a specific location.


Name 2 disorders of Muscles and describe each.


Can an Antagonist be a prime mover?


What surrounds a muscle organ, or whole muscle? What surrounds a bundle of muscle tissues? What is this Fascia made of?


What surrounds the muscle fiber and what is it made of?


Name 6 things that you would find in a microscopic view of a muscle fiber.


What is a Parallel arrangement of Fasciculi, describe? Give 2 examples.


What is a Pennate arrangement, describe 3 subtypes and give examples of each.


What is a Convergent arrangement, give 1 example.


What is the last arrangement I haven’t listed and give 2 examples.


Name 5 criteria for naming muscles and give an example of each?


Describe the Skeletal Muscles – such as they have very little intercellular material -matrix in muscle tissue…


What is the tissue of a Tendon?


What is the difference between a tendon and an aponeurosis?


What exactly do Origin, Insertion and Action mean?


Can you draw a human who has legs flexed, arms adducted, and head everted?


Describe 5 things about a smooth muscle?



Epimysium –


Perimysium –


Fasciculi –


Endomysium –


Fascia –


Sarcoplasm –


Sarcolemma –


Myofibrils –


Myofilaments –


Thin filament, and Thick filaments –


Sarcomere –


Cross striations –


Aponeurosis –


Antagonist –


Synergist –


Agonist –


Longitudinal –


Pinnate –


Multipennate –


Convergent –


Circular –


Unipennate –


Bipennate –


Circumduction –


Angular Movement –


Retraction –


Visceral Smooth Muscle –


Innervation –


Intercalated disks –


Myasthenia gravis –

Muscular Dystrophy –