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Visual Pathway

 

1.)  Light enters pupil→aqueous humor→lens→vitreous humor, detected by Photoreceptors in Retina.

 

2.)    Electrical stimulation passed to Bipolar Cells→Glaglion cells of retina

 

3.)   Axons of Ganglion cells leave retina, forming Optic Nerve

 

4.)  Optic nerves converge at Optic Chiasm. Ganglion axons decussate/cross over to opposite side of brain

 

5.)  Ganglion axons enter Optic Tract, some to the Superior Colliculi, some to Thalamus

 

6.)  Neurons from Thalamus project to Visual Cortex of Occipital lobe

 

Eye Structure

Function

Eyebrows

Prevent sweat dripping

Eyelashes

Prevent –

Eyelids

Protect from sun/foreign particles

Conjunctiva

Prevents –

Tarsal Glands

Containing sebaceous glands to prevent tear overflow and lids sticking together

Extrinsic Muscles

Lacrimal apparatus

Choroid

Suspensory lens

Ciliary body

 

 

Eye Structure

Histology

Conjunctive

Stratified –

Cornea

Dense Connective Tissue, outer layer of –

Sclera

Choroid

Vascular – network of capillaries

Anterior cavity

Posterior cavity

Filled with Vitreous humor

 

 

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Frontal

Primary motor cortex

Premotor cortex

Motor speech area, Broca area

Frontal eye fields

Higher intellectual functions (concentration, decision making, planning); personality; verbal communications; voluntary motor control of skeletal muscles

Parietal

Primary somatosensory cortex

Somatosensory association area

Part of Wernicke Area

Part of Gnostic area

Sensory interpretation of textures and shapes; understanding speech and formulating words to express thoughts and emotions (general sensory)

Temporal

Primary auditory cortex

Primary olfactory cortex

Auditory association area

Olfactory association area

Part of Wernicke area

Part of Gnostic area

Interpretation of auditory and olfactory sensations; storage of auditory and olfactory experiences; understanding speech

 (hearing, smell)

 

Occipital

Primary visual cortex

Visual Association area

Conscious perception of visual stimuli; integration of ey-focussing movements; correlation of visual images with previous visual experiences (sores visual memories)

Insula

Primary gustatory cortex

Interpretation of taste; memory

Epithalamus

Roof of diencephalons/pineal gland

Secretes hormone melatonin to regulate day-night cycles

Thalamus

Pair oval masses on side of 3rd ventricle

Relay station for sensory info. Except olfactory.

Hypothalamus

Includes infundibulum start which extends to pituitary gland

Master control of ANS, Endocrine system, Reg of Body Temp, emotional behavior, food and water intake, sleep-wake circadian rhythms.

Limbic System

Forms ring (limbus) around diencephalons

Affects memory formation, integration of past memories of physical sensations and emotional states

Midbrain

 

Superior colliculi – visual reflex center

Inferior colliculi – auditory reflex center

Pons

 

Pneumotaxic and apneustic centers regulating rate/depth of breathing and influence respiratory center of medulla

Nerves 5,6,7,8

Medulla Oblongata

 

All tracts ascend/descend thru medulla. Nerves 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Pyramids for decussating.

Cardiac Ctr – reg HR, Vasomotor Ctr – BP, Respiratory Ctr – reg respiratory rate. Other nuclei – coughing sneezing salivation, swallowing, gagging, and vomiting.

Brainstem

Midbrain, Pons, medulla oblongata.

Connects forebrain/cerebellum to cord. Bi-directional passageway for tracts.

Cerebellum

3 layers, arbor vitae, folia, vermis, flocculonodular lobe. Cerebellar peduncles

Coordinates skeletal muscle movements, smooth coordinated movements. Equilibrium, posture. Muscle tone.

Skeletal System

Support & Protection

Movement

Mineral Reservoir

Hemopoiesis

Energy Storage

 

 

Paranasal Sinuses

Lighten Skull

Warm Air

Resonate Sound

Protection

Produce Mucus

 

 

Fontanels

Allows for flexibility and skull growth

 

 

Vertebral Column Curves

Increase strength, resilience, flexibility of spine, maintain balance, absorb shock, protect from fracture

 

 

Synovial Fluid

Lubricates

Nourishes

Cushions/shock absorber

 

 

Muscles

Body Movement

Maintenance of posture

Heat production

Storage and movement of materials

Support

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Only current worksheets will be linked. The others will become available as we review their areas.

Exam worksheets are always available in SI, then the week of the exam, they will be available here.

Exam I Worksheets:

cell

functions-exam1

vocabulary-exam-1

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