Primary motor cortex

Premotor cortex

Motor speech area, Broca area

Frontal eye fields

Higher intellectual functions (concentration, decision making, planning); personality; verbal communications; voluntary motor control of skeletal muscles


Primary somatosensory cortex

Somatosensory association area

Part of Wernicke Area

Part of Gnostic area

Sensory interpretation of textures and shapes; understanding speech and formulating words to express thoughts and emotions (general sensory)


Primary auditory cortex

Primary olfactory cortex

Auditory association area

Olfactory association area

Part of Wernicke area

Part of Gnostic area

Interpretation of auditory and olfactory sensations; storage of auditory and olfactory experiences; understanding speech

 (hearing, smell)



Primary visual cortex

Visual Association area

Conscious perception of visual stimuli; integration of ey-focussing movements; correlation of visual images with previous visual experiences (sores visual memories)


Primary gustatory cortex

Interpretation of taste; memory


Roof of diencephalons/pineal gland

Secretes hormone melatonin to regulate day-night cycles


Pair oval masses on side of 3rd ventricle

Relay station for sensory info. Except olfactory.


Includes infundibulum start which extends to pituitary gland

Master control of ANS, Endocrine system, Reg of Body Temp, emotional behavior, food and water intake, sleep-wake circadian rhythms.

Limbic System

Forms ring (limbus) around diencephalons

Affects memory formation, integration of past memories of physical sensations and emotional states



Superior colliculi – visual reflex center

Inferior colliculi – auditory reflex center



Pneumotaxic and apneustic centers regulating rate/depth of breathing and influence respiratory center of medulla

Nerves 5,6,7,8

Medulla Oblongata


All tracts ascend/descend thru medulla. Nerves 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Pyramids for decussating.

Cardiac Ctr – reg HR, Vasomotor Ctr – BP, Respiratory Ctr – reg respiratory rate. Other nuclei – coughing sneezing salivation, swallowing, gagging, and vomiting.


Midbrain, Pons, medulla oblongata.

Connects forebrain/cerebellum to cord. Bi-directional passageway for tracts.


3 layers, arbor vitae, folia, vermis, flocculonodular lobe. Cerebellar peduncles

Coordinates skeletal muscle movements, smooth coordinated movements. Equilibrium, posture. Muscle tone.